Process Improvement Handoffs


Imagine for a moment that you are part of a breathless crowd watching an Olympic relay race. It’s close, but your national team – the home team – is competitive for gold. With tensions high, the crowd chants … and then the baton drops.What is a Handoff

That’s it. The entire stadium groans in unison as their dream of gold medals and glory shatter. Imagine the humiliation of the two who dropped the ball … or in this case the baton.

What is a Handoff?

In the context of business process, we call that baton transfer a handoff. It is the moment when the responsibility for a particular task passes from one person to another. It is also the moment when the process is at its most vulnerable. Things frequently can and do go wrong here. When people talk about poor communication or poor teamwork, chances are they are talking about handoffs.

Managing handoffs successfully may not win your team a gold medal but it will build a foundation for the efficiency and success of any process. Unfortunately, handoffs often present challenges that would make even Olympic athletes break out in a cold sweat.

Improving Handoffs

A handoff is part of a process. And if that process is repeatable (which it most likely is because if it were not it would be a project), then the handoff will happen repeatedly, at the same point of the process. So, if you can work out the kinks on the handover, it will pay dividends in efficiency. But how?

The most common errors for handoffs tend to be specific to the roles played in the exchange. Sender errors commonly revolve around providing insufficient information. Receiver errors either relate to a failure to ask for clarification or to make errors of assumption.

Both parties may be guilty of passing the buck when things go wrong. Both parties may make assumptions about the other person’s expectations of the outcome.

Think back a moment to our relay team. Suppose our runners put in as much work and practice passing the baton as they do conditioning themselves for the race itself. Then surely passing the baton would have less risk of error. We should put as much thought into handoffs as we do into activities in a process.

You can prepare for better handoffs by standardizing them. Know the required information you need to pass at the moment of handoff. You will find more about this in the Improving Handoffs Guide. It includes a worksheet that will help you work through and sequence the key components between sender and receiver. Sign up below.

Handoff Discipline

In some cases handoffs need only a relatively informal procedure. So, handoffs between members of the same team are less structured. However, a handoff between departments or where the participants have “dropped the baton” before requires a more formal approach.  In these circumstances, you might find it useful to use a handoff agreement worksheet to cover the essential elements of the handoff.

After the Handoff

A handoff agreement usually requires more than one iteration: you probably will not get it right the first time. Even if it seemed to go flawlessly, a little fine-tuning can save on time or improve communication in subsequent exchanges. If you include a plan for regular reviews in the handoff agreement, you acknowledge potential room for improvement. If you value their input, players will be more invested in the outcome.

Get the Hang of Better Business Handoffs.. and never drop the baton again.

[Free Guide & Worksheet]business handoff free pdf

Download our Free Guide today and you will get a bonus too! Together with the Guide you will receive a Handoff Agreement Worksheet with Guide Notes.  It’s an essential read for anyone who is intent on reviewing and improving business handoffs.

Let me know if you have process related questions

Process Improvement Handoffs Video

handoff video

If you wanted to improve a process begin by mapping it out. It would probably look a bit like this. Now, there is nothing wrong with process maps, they just don’t tell the whole story. The irony is that the biggest opportunities for process improvement never show up on a process map.

This video is focuses on one of those opportunities. If you are trying to make improvements to your own processes, a good beginning is Hand-offs. A handoff occurs in a process when responsibility for the next activity passes from one person to another.

So, let’s zoom in on part of a process. Here we have two activities, but let’s say that this is at the boundary of two people’s responsibilities. So, the output from the first activity will have to be passed to the person responsible for the second. In other words, it’s a hand-off.

handoff focused improvement efforts

The best a process map illustrates a swimlane between the two. But what’s really going on here? It’s not only the dividing line between two people or department’s responsibilities. The details specific to this particular part of the process are being passed as well. If you like, it is the process data.
There is an additional burden of communication at a hand-off. We need to pass on information so that the next person can complete the task.

This crucial moment is where things can and often do go wrong. If we don’t do a good job of passing the right information at the handoff, we risk errors and delays.

handoff in practice

The risk is low when the process has very little variation from instance to instance. In other words, if it is a cookie cutter process, then the information is routine and the receiver already knows what to do.

Unfortunately, many real world processes are rarely cookie cutter. Some details tend to vary. If, for example, we asked the recipient to purchase a laptop for a new hire we might need a budget, maybe a brand or maybe the date required for use.

The first sign of a problem will be a flurry of communication –probably emails– back and forth as the sender keeps asking for additional details.

Insufficient information to complete a task can frustrate us all. At the very least, it causes delay. Worse, it means errors down the line, like we go over budget on that laptop, or the computer hasn’t the capacity for the required job.

The more variation in a process, the less cookie cutter it is, the more important and detailed the handoff needs to be. Count the increased variation as an opportunity for improving the process.

What if we could agree upfront for a given process what information to forward at the point of the handover? That would allow the recipient to complete the task without delay and with accuracy. We call this a handoff agreement or a hand-off design.

Handoff agreements don’t have to be formal or bureaucratic to be useful, and they are easy to set up. The investment of effort in a conversation or a simple form pays off time and again.

Once people know the required information for a successful hand-off, they generally make the effort to provide it. If they don’t know, then they have no clue of the risk to the process.

The swimlanes on the process map don’t show where vulnerable handoffs are, where real processes are at the most risk of falling through the cracks. Taking the time to communicate between sender and receiver minimizes the chances of that happening.

There are lots of other ways to improve processes. You can dig deeper into this subject by watching other process videos in this series. You can get them and also download an example of a handoff agreement above.

20 Responses to Process Improvement Handoffs

  1. Oleg G. January 5, 2014 at 2:27 am #

    Please, let me know where can I get an example of a handoff agreement?

    Thank you!

    • Ian James January 6, 2014 at 8:01 am #

      Hi Oleg,

      I will send you one. Thanks!

    • John Osborne April 17, 2014 at 7:49 am #

      Can I get a hand off agreement please

      • The Process Consultant April 17, 2014 at 9:04 am #

        Hi John,

        Yes.I have sent you the hand-off form in a spreadsheet and also a more detailed guide to explain the terms. It helps to have everyone use the same terms and understand why it is important. Hope it helps.

        • Warren Rust April 23, 2018 at 10:52 am #

          I’m interested in a copy of this, as well, if you’d be so kind.

  2. Kate October 12, 2014 at 12:05 pm #

    Hi Ian,

    May I have a copy of you hand off agreement worksheet as well?

    Thank you

  3. Jacqueline Qu October 19, 2014 at 5:10 pm #

    Hi, Ian James. Could you please let me get an example of hand-off agreement?
    Thank you!

  4. Manuel Fajardo January 13, 2015 at 4:37 pm #

    Hi Ian James. Could you please send me a sample of hand-off agreement?

  5. Jill Royston April 28, 2015 at 10:39 am #

    Could you please send me a hand-off agreement? Really appreciate how simply you describe the ideas and make it easy for people to see the hand-offs.

  6. Lisa Forte April 30, 2015 at 5:13 am #

    Hi Ian James, Could you please let me have access to an example of a hand-off agreement?

  7. Mara Robertson May 17, 2015 at 10:11 pm #

    Hi Ian James. Could you please send me a sample of hand-off agreement?

  8. Gina Mann September 17, 2015 at 9:53 pm #


    I was wondering if you would please send me a sample of a hand-off agreement. I think this could really help iron out some communication issues with my team.

    Thank you!

  9. Lotte October 14, 2015 at 8:40 am #

    Hi Ian,

    I would like to request for a sample of a handoff agreement.
    Will you send me one?


  10. Tom November 7, 2015 at 3:21 am #

    Can u please sent me the handoff agreement? P.s. I’m glad i was directed to your website. I was writing down everything you said on youtube…. nice to see you already have written thing down!!

  11. Tony February 20, 2016 at 11:53 am #

    Hello Ian,
    This is interesting. Can you send me a sample of the handoff form and guide please?

    Thank you

  12. Marcia March 8, 2016 at 2:28 am #

    Hi Ian. Thanks for the vid. I disagree though that a process map can not tell you what outputs an activity/process (hand-offs even between processes) generates or inputs it takes. I think that depends on the notation used or what mapping tool but even without a tool or strict notation, this information can be captured. When using BPMN on visio, I create my own objects to represent this information or sometiimes even use a simple text box and pointer. I believe it’s important when eliciting information for process modelling, to also source this information and model it otherwise the process is not comprehensive.

  13. Han September 27, 2017 at 6:14 pm #

    Hi Ian, would you be kind to send me your process handover off agreement document. Thanks in advance.

  14. Scott January 9, 2018 at 10:16 am #

    Great article on hand-offs. This area is rarely ever discussed and I have seen so many projects that go nowhere fast as a result of a bad hand-off. From my experience, the sender does not put the time into educating the receiver about the project and it’s entire scope. A project is not simply words and reading the project, but understanding its applicability into the organization. Psychology is an important part of LSS work, and this also rarely discussed.

  15. David July 18, 2018 at 8:34 am #

    Can you please email me the Hand-Off Agreement Worksheet? Thank you. Sincerely, David

  16. Steven Lynn November 6, 2018 at 1:48 pm #

    Hi, please could you email me a sample of the Handoff Agreement Form?
    [email protected]

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